The Ministry of Finance of East Timor or Timor-Leste is responsible for overseeing public procurement.  The government uses the Timor-Leste eProcurement portal for purchases.  Government procurement disciplines in India are governed by the Government Procurement Ordinance and the General Financial Rule. Government procurement orders and general financial rules are mainly managed by the Government Procurement Section of the Department of Industry Promotion and Home Trade (DPIIT), the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (India) and.dem Expenditure Department of the Ministry of Finance. In 2017, the Government Procurement Ordinance and the General Financial Rule were amended by the Government of India in 2017 to include the preference for Make In India.   During the period from 1949 to 1978, Chinese state institutions acquired the goods and services they needed in accordance with administratively controlled transactions, while since the economic reforms of 1978, „central planning has begun to give way to market forces.“ One approach that has gained momentum in the construction industry and in developing countries is the Selection in Planning (SIP) process, which allows project developers and equipment buyers to make significant changes to their needs relatively easily. The SIP process also allows suppliers and contractors to respond more accurately and competitively due to the generally longer lead times they are given. Research from the University of Tennessee shows that solution request and association request methods (also known as partner request or partnership request) are also gaining traction as viable alternatives and more collaborative methods for selecting strategic suppliers, especially for outsourcing. Under Croatian law, procurement procedures must be carried out by representatives of the contracting authority, at least one of whom must be in possession of a valid contract certificate. Public procurement rules generally apply to all public works, service and supply contracts concluded by a public authority. However, there may be exceptions.
These are mainly military acquisitions, which account for a large part of public spending. The GPA and EU public procurement legislation allow exceptions where public tenders would undermine a country`s essential security interests. In addition, certain politically or economically sensitive sectors such as public health, energy supply or public transport may also be treated differently.  Public procurement in the European Union accounts for more than €2.2 trillion, or 14% of EU GDP.  It has been regulated and harmonised by EU law since the 1970s in order to ensure transparency and non-discrimination between EU companies in public procurement in all Member States. Union law only applies to calls for tenders that exceed certain value thresholds. These thresholds vary according to the field to which the contract applies and whether the contract comes from a central government or other public bodies (e.B. == External links == For calls for tenders below these thresholds, national laws apply.  The relevant EU directives currently in force for public procurement are Directive 2009/81, Directive 2014/24 and Directive 2014/25. In Finland, the following legislation applies to public procurement: GeBIZ is a public business centre for e-government (G2B) procurement where suppliers can engage in e-commerce with the Singapore government. All public sector tenders (with the exception of security-related contracts) are published on GeBIZ.  Suppliers can search for public procurement opportunities, retrieve relevant procurement documents and submit their bids online.
The National Institute of Government Procurement and the Federal Institute of Procurement are active in procurement certification and training. A specialized program in public procurement law in the United States is located at George Washington University School of Law. .